A simple cylinder in a steady flow creates a beautiful wake pattern known as a von Karman vortex street. The image above shows several examples of this pattern. Flow is from bottom to top, and the Reynolds number is increasing from left to right. In the experiment, this increasing Reynolds number corresponds to increasing the flow velocity because the cylinder size, fluid, and temperature were all fixed. As the Reynolds number first increases, the cylinder begins to shed vortices. The vortices alternate the side of the cylinder from which they are shed as well as alternating in their sense of rotation (clockwise or counterclockwise). Further increasing the Reynolds number increases the complexity of the wake, with more and more vortices being shed. The vortex street is a beautiful example of how fluid behavior is similar across a range of scales from the laboratory to our planet’s atmosphere. (Image credit: Z. Trávníček et. al)
Ice Music is exactly what the name suggests-music made with ice.
About the ICEstruments:
The Ice Music project in Luleå is initiated by the founder Tim Linhart, working as an ice artist since 30 years, who builds all the ICEstruments himself at home in his garden. Building the ICEstruments is a delicate craftsmanship that requires great patience and also the right cold temperature, so that the ice will have the right elasticity and be possible to sculpt without breaking.
The ICEstruments are very fragile and need to be handled carefully by the musicians tuning and playing on them. For example the ICEviolin usually hung in ropes from the ceiling for a safety reason and it’s thickness, down to only 3 mm in some parts, needs a special plastic protection shield to prevent the musicians warm breath from making a hole in the body of the ICEstrument.